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Segesta
Segesta
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Akragas
Akragas
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Motya
Motya

Reconstruction of the port walls at Motya
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Eryx
Eryx
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Selinus
Selinus
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Himera
Himera
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Gela
Gela
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Syracuse
Syracuse
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Tyndaris
Tyndaris
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Catane
Catane
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Messene
Messene
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Lipari
Lipari
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Ullastret
Ullastret
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Gadir
Gadir
Phoenician sarcophogi of a man and a women from Gades (Cadiz)
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Carambolo
Carambolo
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Carmona
Carmona
Sculpture of a girl playing an aulos from Osuna, near Carmona.
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Malaca
Malaca
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Sexi
Sexi
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Cartago Nova
Cartago Nova
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Elche
Elche
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Akra Leuka
Akra Leuka
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Saguntum
Saguntum
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Ebusus
Ebusus
The Punic Goddess Tanit from Ibiza
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Mago
Mago
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Guardamar
Guardamar
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Baza
Baza
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Empuriae
Empuriae
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Tarraco
Tarraco
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Aliseda
Aliseda
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Numantia
Numantia
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Athens
Athens
The Acropolis at Athens
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Sparta
Sparta
Statue of helmed hoplite, possibly King Leonidas
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Rome
Rome
Cicero addresses the Roman Senate
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Paestum
Paestum
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Alexandria
Alexandria
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Tyre
Tyre
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Rhegium
Rhegium
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Locri
Locri
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Croton
Croton
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Tarentum
Tarentum
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Brentesium
Brentesium
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Cumae
Cumae
Depiction of Medea killing one of her sons on an amphora, ca. 330 BC. From Cumae
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Neapolis
Neapolis
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Carthage
Carthage
Remains of the circular naval dockyard at Carthage
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Argos
Argos
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Corinth
Corinth
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Megara
Megara
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Delphi
Delphi
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Thebes
Thebes
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Eretria
Eretria
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Platea
Platea
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Larissa
Larissa
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Pella
Pella
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Pylos
Pylos
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Olympia
Olympia
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Stageira
Stageira
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Battle of Ecnomus (256 BC)
Battle of Ecnomus (256 BC)
Roman victory against Carthage
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Battle of Zama (202 BC)
Battle of Zama (202 BC)
Roman victory against Carthage
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Battle of Trasimene (217 BC)
Battle of Trasimene (217 BC)
Carthaginian Victory against Rome
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Battle of Dertosa (215 BC)
Battle of Dertosa (215 BC)
Roman victory against Carthage
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Battle of Rhone Crossing (218 BC)
Battle of Rhone Crossing (218 BC)
Carthaginian Victory against Rome
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Siege of Syracuse (214212 BC)
Siege of Syracuse (214212 BC)
The death of Archimedes
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Pergamum
Pergamum
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Tegea
Tegea
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Smyrna
Smyrna
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Mantinea
Mantinea
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Messene
Messene
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Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus
Mausoleum at Halicarnassus
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Samos
Samos
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Miletus
Miletus
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Rhodes
Rhodes
The Colossus of Rhodes
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Delos
Delos
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Ephesus
Ephesus
Statue of the Goddess Artemis from Ephesus
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Mytilene
Mytilene
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Phocea
Phocea
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Phaistos
Phaistos
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Naxos
Naxos
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Mylas
Mylas
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Battle of Mycale (479 BC)
Battle of Mycale (479 BC)
Greek victory against Persia
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Battle of Thermopylae (480 BC)
Battle of Thermopylae (480 BC)
Persian victory against Greeks
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Battle of Marathon (490 BC)
Battle of Marathon (490 BC)
Greek victory against Persia
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Battle of Artemisium (480 BC)
Battle of Artemisium (480 BC)
Stalemate
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Battle of Salamis (480 BC)
Battle of Salamis (480 BC)
Greek victory against Persia
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Battle of Platea (479 BC)
Battle of Platea (479 BC)
Greek victory against Persia
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Battle of Amphipolis (422 BC)
Battle of Amphipolis (422 BC)
Spartan victory against Athens
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Battle of Aegospotami (405 BC)
Battle of Aegospotami (405 BC)
Spartan victory against Athens
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The Sicilian Expedition (415-413 BC)
The Sicilian Expedition (415-413 BC)
Spartan victory against Athens
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Perusia
Perusia
Etruscan chariot found near Perusia
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Tarquinii
Tarquinii
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Veii
Veii
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Caere
Caere
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Chiusi
Chiusi
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Arretium
Arretium
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Vetulonia
Vetulonia
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Pupluna
Pupluna
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Chalkis
Chalkis
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Knossos
Knossos
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Chios
Chios
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Lampsacus
Lampsacus
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Kerkyra
Kerkyra
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Gytherion
Gytherion
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Pherai
Pherai
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Thasos
Thasos
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Abdera
Abdera
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Lilybaeum
Lilybaeum
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Panormus
Panormus
Phoenician sarcophogus found at Panormus
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Aetna
Aetna
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Soleis
Soleis
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Agyrium
Agyrium
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Elymians
Elymians
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Utica
Utica
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Cirta
Cirta
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Caralis
Caralis
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Capua
Capua
The Amphitheatre at Capua
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Massilia
Massilia
Silver coin from the Hellenistic period of Marseille.
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Siwa/ Ammon
Siwa/ Ammon
The Oracle of Zeus at Ammon, visited by Alexander the Great
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Alexandria
Alexandria
Artist's depiction of Ancient Alexandria
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Paraetonium
Paraetonium
Typical coastline around Mersa Matruh, where the ancient port of Paraitonion was located.
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Memphis
Memphis
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Heliopolis
Heliopolis
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Thebes/ Diospolis
Thebes/ Diospolis
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Heracleopolis
Heracleopolis
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Tanis
Tanis
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Bolbitine
Bolbitine
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Leonopolis
Leonopolis
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Mendes/Djedet/Tell El-Ruba
Mendes/Djedet/Tell El-Ruba
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Oxyrhynchos
Oxyrhynchos
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Hermopolis
Hermopolis
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Panopolis
Panopolis
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Coptos
Coptos
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Cyrene
Cyrene
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Benghazi/ Berenike Cyrenaica
Benghazi/ Berenike Cyrenaica
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Barca Cyrenaica
Barca Cyrenaica
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Apollonia, Cyrenaica
Apollonia, Cyrenaica
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Ptolemais Hermiou
Ptolemais Hermiou
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Arsinoe
Arsinoe
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Olbia/Arsinoe
Olbia/Arsinoe
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Crocodopolis
Crocodopolis
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Edfu/ Behdet/ Apollonopolis Magna
Edfu/ Behdet/ Apollonopolis Magna
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Aswan/Syene
Aswan/Syene
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Ptolemais Theron
Ptolemais Theron
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Pselchis
Pselchis
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Berenice Troglodytica
Berenice Troglodytica
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Pelousion
Pelousion
Byzantine fortifications at Pelusium
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Hibis
Hibis
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Dendera
Dendera
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Athribis (upper)
Athribis (upper)
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Naukratis
Naukratis
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Saqqara
Saqqara
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Amiternum
Amiternum
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Salernum
Salernum
Greek Hoplites on vase from 500 BC
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Battle of Caudine Forks (321 BC)
Battle of Caudine Forks (321 BC)
Samnite victory against Rome
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Battle of Heraclea (280 BC)
Battle of Heraclea (280 BC)
Greek victory against Rome
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Rosetta
Rosetta
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Sais
Sais
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Berenice / Benghazi
Berenice / Benghazi
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Gaza
Gaza
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Ariminium
Ariminium
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Antium
Antium
The Borghese Gladiator (100 BC)
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Tarracina
Tarracina
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Malia
Malia
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Gournia
Gournia
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Zakros
Zakros
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Chania
Chania
Late Minoan sarcophagus
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Archanes
Archanes
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Melos
Melos
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Knossos
Knossos
Dolphin mural at the Knossos Palace
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Akrotiri
Akrotiri
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Myrtos
Myrtos
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Trianta
Trianta
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Phaistos Disc
Phaistos Disc
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Hattusa
Hattusa
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Mycenae
Mycenae
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Tyrins
Tyrins
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Pylos
Pylos
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Sparta
Sparta
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Iolcos
Iolcos
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Gla
Gla
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Troy
Troy
Schliemann's treasure, unearthed at Troy
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Dendra
Dendra
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Hagia Triada
Hagia Triada
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The Trojan War
The Trojan War
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Battle of Djahy (1178 BC)
Battle of Djahy (1178 BC)
Egyptian victory against the 'Sea Peoples'
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Battle of the Delta (1175 BC)
Battle of the Delta (1175 BC)
Egyptian victory against the 'Sea Peoples'
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Hazor
Hazor
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Qadesh
Qadesh
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Kition
Kition
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Hamat
Hamat
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Paphos
Paphos
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Salamis
Salamis
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Harran
Harran
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Assur
Assur
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Carchemish
Carchemish
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Ugarit
Ugarit
Baal Statue from Ugarit
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Enkomi
Enkomi
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Alalakh
Alalakh
Statue of Idrimi of Alalakh
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Nippur
Nippur
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Babylon
Babylon
The Hanging Gardens of Babylon
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Sippar
Sippar
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Nineveh
Nineveh
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Byblos
Byblos
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Campaign against the 'Nine Bows' (1208 BC)
Campaign against the
Egyptian victory against Libyans
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Kourion
Kourion
The theatre at Kourion
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Idalion
Idalion
Bust from Idalion (6th Century BC)
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Soli
Soli
Remains of the theatre at soli
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Amathus
Amathus
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Tamassos
Tamassos
Horsemen statue from Tamassos (6th century BC)
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Akanthou
Akanthou
Cypriot syllabic inscription (6th century BC)
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Sardis
Sardis
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Nimrud
Nimrud
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Dur-Sharrukin
Dur-Sharrukin
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Susa
Susa
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Melid
Melid
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Tadmor
Tadmor
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Ur
Ur
The Ziggurat at Ur
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Tushpa
Tushpa
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Arwad
Arwad
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Samaria
Samaria
The Death of Jezebel
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Jerusalem
Jerusalem
King Solomon's Temple
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Siege of Lachish (701 BC)
Siege of Lachish (701 BC)
Assyrian victory
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Ashurbanipal conquers Egypt (667 BC)
Ashurbanipal conquers Egypt (667 BC)
Assyrian victory
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Battle of Susa (647 BC)
Battle of Susa (647 BC)
Assyrian victory
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Battle of Qarqar (853 BC)
Battle of Qarqar (853 BC)
Stalemate
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Pasargadae
Pasargadae
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Ecbatana
Ecbatana
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Persepolis
Persepolis
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Bactria
Bactria
Gold coin of Diodotus (245 BC)
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Alexandria ad Caucasum
Alexandria ad Caucasum
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Alexandria Eschate
Alexandria Eschate
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Alexandria on the Oxus
Alexandria on the Oxus
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Sogdian Rock
Sogdian Rock
Alexander marries Roxana of Bactria
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Alexandria on the Indus
Alexandria on the Indus
Indo-Greek Banquet
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Alexandria Arachoton
Alexandria Arachoton
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Alexandria (Merv)
Alexandria (Merv)
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Hecatompylos
Hecatompylos
Depiction of a Parthian from Persepolis
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Tashkent
Tashkent
Depiction of Sythians from Persepolis
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Gabae
Gabae
Depiction of Medeans from Persepolis
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Philippopolis
Philippopolis
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Gordium
Gordium
Alexander cuts the Gordion Knot
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Battle of the Hydaspes (325 BC)
Battle of the Hydaspes (325 BC)
Macedonian victory
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Battle of Gaugamela (331 BC)
Battle of Gaugamela (331 BC)
Macedonian victory
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Battle of Issus (333 BC)
Battle of Issus (333 BC)
Macedonian victory
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Battle of Granicus (334 BC)
Battle of Granicus (334 BC)
Macedonian victory
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The Siege of Multan (325 BC)
The Siege of Multan (325 BC)
Alexander is wounded
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Arbela
Arbela
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Alexandria in Aria
Alexandria in Aria
Citadel built by Alexander the Great
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Samarkand
Samarkand
Chinese depiction of Greek Soldier (2nd Century BC)
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Side
Side
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Palmyra
Palmyra
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Antioch
Antioch
The Tyche of Antioch (Roman copy of the Greek original)
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Estakhr
Estakhr
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Sinope
Sinope
Diogenes the Cynic was born in Sinope
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Byzantium
Byzantium
The crescent moon has been the symbol of the City of Byzantium since the Classical Age
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Nora
Nora
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Tharros
Tharros
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Volubilis
Volubilis
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Emerita Augusta
Emerita Augusta
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Lugdunum
Lugdunum
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Ancyra
Ancyra
The temple of Augustus in Ankara
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Leptis Magna
Leptis Magna
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Emperor Augustus
Emperor Augustus
Augustus, Rome's first official Emperor
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Mark Antony
Mark Antony
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Caesar defeats the Gauls
Caesar defeats the Gauls
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Byzantium
Byzantium
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The Assassination of Caesar
The Assassination of Caesar
The 'Liberatores' kill Caesar
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Sextus Pompey
Sextus Pompey
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Battle of Ilerda (49 BC)
Battle of Ilerda (49 BC)
Caesar is victorious
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Caesar in Egypt
Caesar in Egypt
Caesar is presented with the head of Pompey in Egypt
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Alexandria
Alexandria
Queen Cleopatra VII
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Battle of Naulochus (36 BC)
Battle of Naulochus (36 BC)
Sextus Pompey is defeated by Octavian's General Agrippa
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Battle of Actium (31 BC)
Battle of Actium (31 BC)
Antony and Cleopatra are defeated by Octavian
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Valentia
Valentia
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Philippi
Philippi
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Ephesus
Ephesus
The Tomb of St. John in Ephesus
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Damascus
Damascus
The Gate of Bab Kisan where St. Paul escaped from Damascus
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Tarsus
Tarsus
St. Paul was born in Tarsus
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Antioch
Antioch
The Church of St. Paul near Antioch
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Anazarbus
Anazarbus
Ancient South Gate of Anazarbus
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Petra
Petra
The Monastery at Petra
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Thessalonika
Thessalonika
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Hippo Regius
Hippo Regius
St. Augustine of Hippo with Saint Monica
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Aleppo
Aleppo
Church of St. Simeon, built 475 AD
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Emperor Constantine
Emperor Constantine
The First Christian Emperor of Rome
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Tipasa
Tipasa
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Bordeaux
Bordeaux
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Mediolanum
Mediolanum
The Basilica of San Lorenzo, built upon the original 4th Century pillars
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Ravenna
Ravenna
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Salonae
Salonae
Emperor Diocletian's Palace (305 AD)
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Patmos
Patmos
Chora at the site of the Monastery of Saint John the Theologian
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Laodicea
Laodicea
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Sardis
Sardis
The Ancient Synagogue of Sardis
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Nyssa
Nyssa
Gregory of Nyssa
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Nisibis
Nisibis
Church of Nisibis
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Perge
Perge
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Corinth
Corinth
St. Paul's 2nd Epistle to the Corinthians
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Hispalis
Hispalis
Roman road in Italica (near Hispalis)
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Braga
Braga
Paulus Oroseus of Braga
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Caesaraugusta
Caesaraugusta
A Roman room in Caesaraugusta
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Conimbriga
Conimbriga
Roman floor mosaic in Conimbriga
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Emporiae
Emporiae
Roman Mosaic
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Asturica Augusta
Asturica Augusta
Roman Milestone along the Roman road between Asturica and Bracara
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Aquileia
Aquileia
Paleochristian Mosaic 350 AD
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Vivarium
Vivarium
Cassiodorus of Vivarium
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Dougga
Dougga
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Hadrumentum
Hadrumentum
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El Djem
El Djem
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Edessa
Edessa
King Agbar holding the image of Edessa
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Sirmium
Sirmium
Saint Anastasia of Sirmium
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Constantinople
Constantinople
Byzantium was renamed Constantinople in 330 AD
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Shipwreck of St Paul
Shipwreck of St Paul
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Fairhavens
Fairhavens
The ship carrying St Paul is forced to halt at 'Fairhavens'
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Lucus Augusti
Lucus Augusti
Roman wall of Lucus Augusti
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Baelo Claudia
Baelo Claudia
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Alcantara
Alcantara
"Pontem perpetui mansurum in saecula"
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Rhoda
Rhoda
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Norba Caesarina
Norba Caesarina
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Corduba
Corduba
Roman temple in Cordoba
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Cartago Nova
Cartago Nova
The Roman theatre in Cartagena
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Brigantium
Brigantium
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Segobriga
Segobriga
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Segovia
Segovia
The Aqueduct of Segovia
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Clunia
Clunia
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Asidonia
Asidonia
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Ronda
Ronda
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Toletum
Toletum
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Italica
Italica
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Evora
Evora
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Complutum
Complutum
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Portus Victoriae
Portus Victoriae
Roman road in Navarre
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Legio
Legio
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Termes
Termes
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Azaila
Azaila
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Libisosa
Libisosa
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Antikeria
Antikeria
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Barcino
Barcino
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Pompaelo
Pompaelo
Pompaelo was founded by Pompey
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Bracara Augusta
Bracara Augusta
Roman Aqueduct near Braga
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Pollentia
Pollentia
Remains of the Roman theatre of Pollentia
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Gades
Gades
Roman theatre in Cadiz
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Lucentum
Lucentum
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Bassae
Bassae
The Temple of Apollo at Bassae
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Didymes
Didymes
Mouldings from the Temple of Apollo at Didyma
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Claros
Claros
Statue of Apollo, Roman copy of a Greek original
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Sparta
Sparta
Ivory busts from the Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia, Sparta
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Epidaurus
Epidaurus
Theatre at the Sanctuary of Asklepius, Epidaurus
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Pergamon
Pergamon
Temple of Asklepius, Pergamon
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Kos
Kos
The Asclepiaeum on Kos
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Lindos
Lindos
The Temple of Athena at Lindos
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Troy
Troy
Cassandra, naked, cowers at the feet of the image of Athena
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Teos
Teos
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Thebes
Thebes
Dionysos, the Greek God of Wine
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Eleusis
Eleusis
The Eleusian Trinity: Demter, Triptolemus, and Persephone
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Samos
Samos
Remains of the Heraion at Samos
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Sounion
Sounion
The Temple Of Poseidon on Cape Sounion
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Dion
Dion
Bust of a philosopher found at Dion, at the foot of Mount Olympus
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Nemea
Nemea
The Temple to Zeus at Nemea
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Dodona
Dodona
The theatre at Dodona
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Stratos
Stratos
Image of Zeus from Attic wear
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Samothraki
Samothraki
The Famous Statue of Nike found at Samothraki, now at the Louvre
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The Cult of Helios
The Cult of Helios
Helios depicted on Attic ware circa 500 BC
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Corinth
Corinth
The Temple of Apollo in Corinth
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Mount Olympus
Mount Olympus
Birthplace of the Gods
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Kerkouane
Kerkouane
Early evidence of baths, plumbing & mult-story apartments
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Bulla Regia
Bulla Regia
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Maktar
Maktar
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Sbeitla
Sbeitla
Roman Mosaic at Sbeitla
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Thuburbo Majus
Thuburbo Majus
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Gafsa
Gafsa
Ancient Roman baths in Gafsa
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Theveste
Theveste
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Thapsus
Thapsus
Roman Mosaics at Thapsus
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Sabratha
Sabratha
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Oea
Oea
The Arch of Marcus Aerelius, Oea
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Cirta
Cirta
Roman mosaic from Cirta
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Djemila
Djemila
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Guelma
Guelma
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Thubursicum
Thubursicum
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Thamugadi
Thamugadi
This Roman City was submerged by Sahara Sands in the 7th Century AD
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Lambaesis
Lambaesis
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Caesarea
Caesarea
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Pomaria
Pomaria
Tlemcen, on the site of Roman Pomaria
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Lixus
Lixus
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Saldae
Saldae
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Tingis
Tingis
View of the harbour of Tangiers (Ancient Tingis)
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Sala Colonia
Sala Colonia
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Banasa
Banasa
Roman Mosaic from Banasa
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Carthage
Carthage
Reconstruction of Roman Carthage (the Punic city had the same port structure)
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Golgoi
Golgoi
Egyptian influenced sculpture from Golgoi
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La Turbie
La Turbie
The Trophy of Augustus
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Cemenelum
Cemenelum
The Roman Baths at Cemenelum
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Forum Julii
Forum Julii
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Reii
Reii
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Pont Flavien
Pont Flavien
Roman bridge across the Touloubre
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Glanum
Glanum
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Arles
Arles
The Roman Amphitheatre at Arles
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Avennio (Avignon)
Avennio (Avignon)
Roman relief showing a decree welcoming foreigners (Calvert Museum, Avignon)
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Vacheres
Vacheres
Roman relief found near Vacheres
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Millau
Millau
The famous Roman pottery of Millau was exported all over the Mediterranean
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Arausio (Orange)
Arausio (Orange)
The Roman theatre at Orange
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Vasio Vocontiorum
Vasio Vocontiorum
Roman mosaic at Vasio
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St-Romain-en-Gal
St-Romain-en-Gal
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Vienne
Vienne
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Pont du Gard
Pont du Gard
Roman Aqueduct at Pont du Gard
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Nemausus (Nimes)
Nemausus (Nimes)
The Amphitheatre at Nimes
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Nages
Nages
Remains of the Pont Ambroix bridge near Nages
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Loupian
Loupian
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St Thibery Roman Bridge
St Thibery Roman Bridge
The Roman Bridge at St. Thibery
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Narbo Martius
Narbo Martius
The remanins of the Roman Via Domitia, which ran through the city of Narbo
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Segusio
Segusio
The Arch of Augustus at Susa (Ancient Segusio)
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Antioch
Antioch
The Antioch Chalice, late 6th century AD
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London
London
Remains of the London Wall
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Cologne
Cologne
Reconstruction of Roman Cologne
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Paris
Paris
Paris became the capital of the Franks under Clovis I in 506 AD
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Constantinople
Constantinople
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Rome
Rome
Coin of Ostrogoth King Theodohad
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Carthage
Carthage
Vandal coin minted in Carthage
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Toletum
Toletum
Visigoth Crown from Spain
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The Vandals sack Rome
The Vandals sack Rome
Vandal king Gaiseric sacks Rome in 455 AD
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Sirmium
Sirmium
Roman coin minted in Sirmium, 363 AD
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The Visigoths sack Rome
The Visigoths sack Rome
"It is the end of the world, I cannot write for the tears" - St. Jerome
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Alexandria
Alexandria
Miniature painting on gilded glass of Galla Placida from Alexandria
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Burgos
Burgos
Burgos Castle, built in 884 AD
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Guardia de Jaen
Guardia de Jaen
Moorish castle at La Guardia de Jaen
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Gormaz
Gormaz
Moorish castle at Gormaz
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Teruel
Teruel
Mudejar tower in Teruel
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Jabal Tariq
Jabal Tariq
Gibraltar or Jabal Tariq means Tariq's mountain. Named after Tariq Ibn Ziyad, who directed the Arabic invasion of Spain
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Tarifa
Tarifa
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Buitrago
Buitrago
The Castle at Buitrago
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Merida
Merida
Walls of the Islamic Alcazaba in Merida
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Bobastro
Bobastro
Church built by Ibn Hafsun, a bandit who converted to Christianity and led a rebellion against the Caliphate
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Valladolid
Valladolid
Christian 'Mozarab' tapestry from Valladolid, 970 AD
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Ardales
Ardales
The castle built by Ibn Hafsun, a bandit who converted to Christianity and led a rebellion against the Caliphate
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Leon
Leon
Antiphonary Folio from Len
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Caltojar
Caltojar
Christian church in Caltojar, 11th Century AD
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Madinat al-Zahra
Madinat al-Zahra
Abd al Rahman III's palace in Medina al-Zahra
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San Milln de la Cogolla
San Milln de la Cogolla
The monastery at San Milln is where the first phrases in Spanish and Basque have been found
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Ponferrada
Ponferrada
The Templar Castle at Ponferrada
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Oviedo
Oviedo
The church of Santa Mara del Naranco, built in 842 AD by Ramiro I
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Santiago de Compostela
Santiago de Compostela
The cathedral in Santiago de Compestela, built 1075 - 1128 AD
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Leon
Leon
The cathedral in Leon
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Burgos
Burgos
The cathedral in Burgos
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Valladolid
Valladolid
A painting of Valladolid in 1574
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Ourense
Ourense
The cathedral in Ourense
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Huesca
Huesca
The cathedral in Huesca
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Guardamar del Segura
Guardamar del Segura
The Castle at Guardamar del Segura
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Guadamar
Guadamar
Castle built by the Count of Fuensalida in 1470 AD
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Burgalimar
Burgalimar
Moorish castle built in 986 AD and taken by Ferdinand III in 1225 AD
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Valencia
Valencia
Moorish style baths built by the Christians in 1313 AD
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Jativa
Jativa
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Alcal de Guadara
Alcal de Guadara
Moorish castle at Alcala de Guadara
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Tabernas Castle
Tabernas Castle
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Girona
Girona
The Arab baths in Girona
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Niebla
Niebla
Moorish walls of Niebla
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Al-Monaster
Al-Monaster
Moorish mezquita built in the 10th Century AD
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Ukshunuba
Ukshunuba
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Kadis
Kadis
13th century gate in Cadiz
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Montemor-o-Velho
Montemor-o-Velho
Christian castle built in the 11th Century AD
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Esterri de Cardos
Esterri de Cardos
Christian Fresco, circa 1100 AD
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Besalu
Besalu
The Fortified bridge dates to the 12th Century AD
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Cuellar
Cuellar
13th Century Mudejar style church in Cuellar
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Segovia
Segovia
The Church of Veracruz in Segovia, 13th Century AD
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Castelo-dos-Mouros
Castelo-dos-Mouros
9th Century AD Moorish Castle
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Almera
Almera
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Badajoz
Badajoz
Moorish fortifications in Badajoz
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Alconchel
Alconchel
Christian castle built 1116 AD
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Al-Mansur
Al-Mansur
Almohad Castle
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Calatrava
Calatrava
13th Century AD christain castle
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Pearroya
Pearroya
The Castle of Pearroya
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Alarcon
Alarcon
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Molina de Aragon
Molina de Aragon
Moorish castle from the 9th Century AD
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El Cid's Castle
El Cid
The Castle of El Cid
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vila
vila
The medieval walls of the city of Avila
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Ampudia
Ampudia
15th century AD christian castle
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Cuidad Rodrigo
Cuidad Rodrigo
14th century christian castle
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Ucero
Ucero
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Santander
Santander
16th century AD painting of Santander
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Ors
Ors
The castle at Ors
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Sdaba
Sdaba
12th century AD christian castle
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Consuegra
Consuegra
The castle at Consuegra was built by the Moors and ceded to Alfonso VI in 1097 AD
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Tarragona
Tarragona
The Poblet Monastery near Tarragona, built in the 12th Century AD, was the royal pantheon of the kings of the Crown of Aragon
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Abizanda Watchtower
Abizanda Watchtower
The highest surveillance point in the Cinca valley. Built in the 11th century AD by Sancho Garces III of Navarre.
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Jerez de la Frontera
Jerez de la Frontera
The Alcazar of Jerez de la Frontera
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Malaqah
Malaqah
Arches typical of Islamic Spain inside the 11th century AD Alcazaba of Malaga
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Granada
Granada
The Alhambra, the palace of the Nasrids, the last Islamic Kings of Spain
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Jaen
Jaen
The Castle at Jaen
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Cartagena
Cartagena
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Denia
Denia
11th century AD Moorish castle at Denia
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Murcia
Murcia
Flag of the Kingdom of Murcia
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Lisbon
Lisbon
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Cuidad Real
Cuidad Real
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Seville
Seville
The Alcazar of Seville
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Toledo
Toledo
Old Moorish mosque constructed by Musa Ibn Ali in 999 AD
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Cuenca
Cuenca
Cuenca was famous under the Moors for it's ivory artisanship
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Madrid
Madrid
Saint Nicolas Tower, this Mudejar structure dates to the 12th century AD.
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Guadalajara
Guadalajara
The Tower of lvar Fez, who conquered the city from the Moors in 1085 AD
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Porto
Porto
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Salamanca
Salamanca
The University of Salamanca, founded in 1218 AD by King Alfonso IX of Leon, is the first Christian University in Spain
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Zaragosa
Zaragosa
The Aljafera of Zaragosa, built by the Moors
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Tortosa
Tortosa
Zuda Castle, built by the Moorish Caliph, Abdel-Rahman III
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Lrida
Lrida
The Seu Cathedral, 13th Century AD
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Barcelona
Barcelona
The Church of Santa Maria del Mar, built 1329-1383
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Pamplona
Pamplona
Sancho II, King of Pamplona from 970-994 AD, pictured here with his Queen and his brother, Codex Vigilanus
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Battle of Roncevaux Pass (778 AD)
Battle of Roncevaux Pass (778 AD)
Frankish campaign into Spain is defeated by a Basque army in allegiance with the Arabs
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Battle of Covadonga (722 AD)
Battle of Covadonga (722 AD)
Christians defeat the Arabs for the first time in Spain
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Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa (1212 AD)
Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa (1212 AD)
Christian forces defeat the Almohads, this marks a major turning point in the reconquista
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The Siege of Lisbon (1147 AD)
The Siege of Lisbon (1147 AD)
19th Century painting of the Moors surrendering the city of Lisbon to the Christians
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Battle of Sagrajas (1086 AD)
Battle of Sagrajas (1086 AD)
The Almoravids make their presence known in Iberia by defeated the army of Castile
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Battle of Ourique (1139 AD)
Battle of Ourique (1139 AD)
Legend has it that the Portuguese Christians defeated the Almoravids with the help of divine intervention
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Battle of Morella (1084 AD)
Battle of Morella (1084 AD)
El Cid fought with the Moors and defeated the the Christian forces of Aragon and Navarre
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El Cid conquers Valencia (1094 AD)
El Cid conquers Valencia (1094 AD)
El Cid conquers Valencia from the Moors and holds it until 1102 AD
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Cordoba
Cordoba
The Mezquita of Cordoba
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Trujillo
Trujillo
Remains of a Christian church as seen from the castle at Trujillo
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Loarre Castle
Loarre Castle
Castle built by King Sancho of Aragon in the 11th century AD
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Coimbra
Coimbra
Coimbra served as the capitol of the newly created Kingdom of Portugal from 1139-1260
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Alcudia
Alcudia
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Zamora
Zamora
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Carmona
Carmona
The Parador of Carmona, inspired by the City's Islamic heritage
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Palma
Palma
Almohads defending Mayorca from Christian invasions
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Susa
Susa
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Kerman
Kerman
Pre-Islamic Sassanid art, 4th Century AD
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Bishapur
Bishapur
Pre-Islamic Sassanid Mosaic at Bishapur, ca. 260 AD
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Kermanshah
Kermanshah
Sassanid Cataphract depicted in a rock relief at Taq-e Bostan, Kermanshah, 6th Century AD
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Amol
Amol
Sassanid King, 7th Century AD, from Mazandaran province
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Susa
Susa
Islamic vase from Susa, 8th-9th century AD
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Aden
Aden
Sassanid King Khosrau II fighting Ethiopian forces in Yemen, 5-6th century AD
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Kabul
Kabul
Pre-Islamic coin from Kabul, circa 750 AD
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Mosul
Mosul
Saint Elijah's Monastery near Mosul
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Kairouan
Kairouan
The Great Mosque of Kairouan
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Tunis
Tunis
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Fez
Fez
The University Al-Karaouine in Fez, established in 859 AD
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Tangier
Tangier
Painting by L.C. Tiffany of a market outside Tangier
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Tripoli
Tripoli
Street in the Medina of Tripoli
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Alexandria
Alexandria
The ancient Greek lighthouse in Alexandria survived until the 14th Century AD
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Fustat
Fustat
The Mosque of Ibn Tulun, built 879 AD, is the oldest standing Mosque in Cairo
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Mecca
Mecca
Muhammed at the Kabba in Mecca from a 16th Century Ottoman painting
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Medina
Medina
Mount Uhud, where the followers of Muhammed defended Medina from the Meccans
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Jerusalem
Jerusalem
The Mosque of the Dome of the Rock, built in 691, is the oldest extant Islamic building in the world
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Damascus
Damascus
The Umayyad mosque of Damascus, completed 715 AD
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Aleppo
Aleppo
The Umayyad mosque of Aleppo, completed 717 AD
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Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon
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Kufa
Kufa
1915 photo of the Great Mosque of Kufa, originally built in 639 AD
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Shiraz
Shiraz
The Qur'an Gate in Shiraz, first built in the 10th Century AD
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Tabriz
Tabriz
The Bazar in Tabriz is one of the oldest in the world
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Tifilis
Tifilis
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Mosul
Mosul
The Umayyad mosque of Mosul, built in 640 AD
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Nishapur
Nishapur
9th Century bowl from Nishapur
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Herat
Herat
Citadel built by Alexander the Great
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Kabul
Kabul
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Derbent
Derbent
Pre-Islamic Sassanid fortifications in Derbent
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Bukhara
Bukhara
Ismail Samani mausoleum, 9th Century AD
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Sana'a
Sana
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The Battle of Badra (624 AD)
The Battle of Badra (624 AD)
16th Century depiction of Ali beheading Nasr bin al-Hareth in front of Mohammed after the Battle of Badr
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Shabwa
Shabwa
3rd Century AD Griffon from Shabwa
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Battle of Yarmouk (636 AD)
Battle of Yarmouk (636 AD)
Muslims defeat a Byzantine army
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Battle of Karbala (680 AD)
Battle of Karbala (680 AD)
Umayyads defeat Husayn ibn Ali, founder of the Shia movement
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Battle of Tabarka (702 AD)
Battle of Tabarka (702 AD)
The Arabs finaly defeat Kahina, a Berber queen who led the resistance to the Mulsims in North Africa
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Battle of Tours (733 AD)
Battle of Tours (733 AD)
Charles Martel of the Franks defeats the Arabs and saves Europe from Islam
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Rome
Rome
7th Century Church of San Giorgio, Rome
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Jerusalem
Jerusalem
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre
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Sohar
Sohar
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Tropea
Tropea
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Palermo
Palermo
Norman King Roger II of Sicily is crowned by Christ himself in this 12th century gold mosaic from Palermo
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The War of the Sicilian Vespars
The War of the Sicilian Vespars
The Kingdom of Aragon conquers Sicily
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Calvi
Calvi
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Bonifacio
Bonifacio
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Corti
Corti
The hilltop castle was built by King Alfonso V of Aragon
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Split
Split
Split's Seawalls, originaly part of Emperor Diocletian's Palace
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Otranto
Otranto
Otranto viewed from the Aragonese Castle
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Aragonese Campaigns to conquer Corsica
Aragonese Campaigns to conquer Corsica
The Stairway of the King of Aragon, legendarily carved out of the cliff face during the seige of Bonifacio
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The Conquest of Mayorca (1229)
The Conquest of Mayorca (1229)
Aragon conquers Mayorca
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Sassari
Sassari
Romanesque Belltower in Sassari
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Oristrano
Oristrano
Eleanor of Arborea, ruled an independent Kingdom from Oristrano
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Cagliari
Cagliari
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Bougie
Bougie
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Agrigento
Agrigento
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Modon
Modon
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Siena
Siena
The Duomo Cathedral in Siena, built in the 13th Century AD
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Venice
Venice
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Ancona
Ancona
15th Century Map of Ancona by Piri Reis
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Rome
Rome
The Pantheon of Rome
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Naples
Naples
The Castel Nuovo of Naples
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Avignon
Avignon
The Papal Palace of Avignon
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Bordeaux
Bordeaux
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Genoa
Genoa
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Nice
Nice
Depiction of Nice in the 1500s
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Toulouse
Toulouse
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Senj
Senj
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Marseilles
Marseilles
Marseilles in 1575
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Messina
Messina
Annunziata dei Catalani (late 12th-13th century)
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Pisa
Pisa
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Montepellier
Montepellier
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Krak des Chevaliers
Krak des Chevaliers
Headquarters of the Knights Hospitaller during the Crusades
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Margat
Margat
The Castle was captured by the Christians in 1104
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Citadel of Salah Ed-Din
Citadel of Salah Ed-Din
The Castle was retaken by Saladin in 1188
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Tortosa
Tortosa
The Crusaders built the Cathedral of Our Lady of Tortosa circa 1150
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Yilankale
Yilankale
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Sis
Sis
Constantine III, Chrisian King of Armenian Cilicia
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Byblos
Byblos
The Crusader castle at Byblos
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Chateau Pelerin
Chateau Pelerin
Castle built by the Knights Templar in 1218
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Belvoir
Belvoir
Fortress built be the Knights Hospitaller in 1168
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Caesarea
Caesarea
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Al Karak
Al Karak
Crusader castle built in the 1140s
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Montreal
Montreal
Crusader castle built in 1115 by Baldwin I
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Toron
Toron
Crusader castle built in 1105
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Hebron
Hebron
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Jaffa
Jaffa
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Darum
Darum
Darum was a stronghold of the Knights Hospitaller
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Hama
Hama
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Hims
Hims
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Latakia
Latakia
The coast of Latakia, as the crusaders would have seen it from the sea
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Bilbeis
Bilbeis
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Kantara
Kantara
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Damietta
Damietta
17th Century depiction of the crusaders attacking Damietta
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Limassol
Limassol
Kolossi castle in Limassol
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Nicosia
Nicosia
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Famagusta
Famagusta
Saint Nicolas Cathedral in Famagusta, built 1298-1400
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Aqaba
Aqaba
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Silifke
Silifke
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Anamur
Anamur
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Alanya
Alanya
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Antalya
Antalya
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Konya
Konya
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Corycus
Corycus
Armenian Castle off the coast of Corycus
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Beirut
Beirut
The re-taking of Beirut by Amalric II in 1197. 1842 paiting by Hesse
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Acre
Acre
Depiction of the Egypyians retaking Acre in 1291
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Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Jerusalem was recaptured by the Crusaders in 1099
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Antioch
Antioch
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Masyaf
Masyaf
Headquarters of the Islamic "Assassin" Sect
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Tyre
Tyre
William of Tyre discovers Baldwin IV's first symptoms of leprosy
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Sidon
Sidon
The Crusader castle of Sidon
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Tripoli
Tripoli
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Siege of Antioch (1097 - 1098)
Siege of Antioch (1097 - 1098)
After a yearlong siege, the crusaders finaly capture Antioch
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Siege of Jerusalem (1099)
Siege of Jerusalem (1099)
A prophecy stated that the Crusaders would take Jerusalem if they walked around the cities walls barefoot, it appeared to work
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Siege of Maarat (1098)
Siege of Maarat (1098)
Desperate crusaders resorted to canibalism after capturing Maarat
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Battle of Ascalon (1099)
Battle of Ascalon (1099)
The Crusaders defeat the Egyptians
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Siege of Edessa (1144)
Siege of Edessa (1144)
The Christians lose Edessa
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Siege of Damascus (1148)
Siege of Damascus (1148)
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Battle of Hattin (1187)
Battle of Hattin (1187)
Guy of Lusignan surrenders to Saladin after Battle of Hattin
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Siege of Acre (1191)
Siege of Acre (1191)
The Crusaders capture Acre
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Battle of Al-Mansourah (1250)
Battle of Al-Mansourah (1250)
The Crusaders are defeated, bringing an end to the Seventh Crusade
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Siege of Damietta (1218 - 1219)
Siege of Damietta (1218 - 1219)
The crusaders capture Damietta
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Battle of Hims (1260)
Battle of Hims (1260)
The Mongols are defeated by the Egyptians
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Battle of Ain Jalut (1260)
Battle of Ain Jalut (1260)
The Mongols are defeated by the Egyptians
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Edessa
Edessa
Baldwin of Boulogne is welcomed by the Armenian clergy into Edessa in 1098
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The Death of Frederick of Germany
The Death of Frederick of Germany
Frederick I Barbarossa died after falling from his horse whilst crossing the Saleph River, as a result, most of the German crusaders turn back
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Battle of Arsuf (1191)
Battle of Arsuf (1191)
Richard the Lionheart defeats Saladin, bringing an end to the Third Crusade
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Cairo
Cairo
A typical street in Islamic Cairo
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Fraxinet
Fraxinet
The Arabs controlled Fraxinet (The area of St. Tropez) from 889-973
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Bari
Bari
Bari was the capital of an Islamic Emirate in Italy (841 - 871)
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Taranto
Taranto
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Amalfi
Amalfi
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Messina
Messina
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Palermo
Palermo
Arabic architecture in Palermo
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Battle of Ostia (849 AD)
Battle of Ostia (849 AD)
A storm assists the Christians in defeating the Muslim Navy
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Malta
Malta
Mdina was the capital of Malta during the period of Arab rule
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Gaeta
Gaeta
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Battle of Cerami (1061 AD)
Battle of Cerami (1061 AD)
The Normans defeat the Muslims
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Mahdia
Mahdia
Gate to the 9th Century Mosque in Mahdia
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Ashdod
Ashdod
A reconstruction of a Philistine House
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Elath
Elath
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Beersheba
Beersheba
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Sarepta
Sarepta
A Phoenician style ship, from an Assyrian relief
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Meggido
Meggido
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Kadesh-Barneah
Kadesh-Barneah
Kadesh-Barneah is the site where Miriam, sister of Moses died
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Kir-Moab
Kir-Moab
The Mesha Stela from 840 BC recalls the victory of the Moabites against "Omri king of Israel"
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Ashtoreth
Ashtoreth
The Phoenician Goddess Astarte was worshipped at Ashtoreth
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Jericho
Jericho
The Taking of Jericho, from a 19th Century painting by Tissot
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Shechem
Shechem
Deborah the Prophetess preached in the land of Ephraim
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Lacshish
Lacshish
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Mahanaim
Mahanaim
Jacob wrestles with the Angel
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Gaza
Gaza
Samson destroys the Phillistine Temple in Gaza
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Sidon
Sidon
Remains of a Phoenician temple between Beirut and Sidon
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Akko
Akko
A Phoenician coin
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Biruta
Biruta
The famous Pigeon Rocks of Beirut
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Ragusa
Ragusa
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Maurocastro
Maurocastro
The Castle at Maurocastro
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Azov
Azov
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Caffa
Caffa
Genoese Fortress at Caffa
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Durazzo
Durazzo
Durrs in 1573
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Sinope
Sinope
Billingual Greek and Arabic inscription at Sinope, 1215 AD
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Nafplion
Nafplion
The castle of Palamidi at Nafplion
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Cembalo
Cembalo
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Naxos
Naxos
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Sudak
Sudak
Genoese Fortress at Sudak
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Corfu
Corfu
The Venetian Fortress at Corfu
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Tenedos
Tenedos
Venetian Era Fort at Tenedos
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Rethymno
Rethymno
Venetian Fortress at Rethymo
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Heraklion
Heraklion
The Venetian fortress of Rocca al Mare guards the harbor at Heraklion
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Adrionopolis
Adrionopolis
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Udine
Udine
The Loggia del Lionello, built by the Venetians in the 1400s
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Bursa
Bursa
Bursa served as the capital of the Ottoman Empire in the 14th Century
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Sgt
Sgt
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Kayseri
Kayseri
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Teodo
Teodo
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Siege of Zadar (1202)
Siege of Zadar (1202)
The Crusaders sack the city of Zadar, a rival of Venice, during the Forth Crusade
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Tinos
Tinos
The Venetian Fortifications on the Exobourgos Mountain of Tinos
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Battle of Zonchio (1499)
Battle of Zonchio (1499)
The Ottoman Turks defeat the Venetians using canons for the first time at sea
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Battle of Meloria (1284)
Battle of Meloria (1284)
The Genoese Fleet, pictured here, destroys the Pisan Fleet
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Battle of Lepanto (1571)
Battle of Lepanto (1571)
The Turks are defeated
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Siege of Malta (1565)
Siege of Malta (1565)
The Turks fail to take Malta
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Siege of Rhodes (1480)
Siege of Rhodes (1480)
Rhodes as it looked after the failed siege by the Turks
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Siege of Rhodes (1522)
Siege of Rhodes (1522)
The Turks capture Rhodes from the Knights Hospitaller
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Siege of Constantinople (1203)
Siege of Constantinople (1203)
Constantinople is captured by the Forth Crusaders
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Fall of Constantinople (1453)
Fall of Constantinople (1453)
Constantinople falls to the Turks
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Battle of Preveza (1538)
Battle of Preveza (1538)
Turkish victory
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Turkish Conquest of Cyprus (1570)
Turkish Conquest of Cyprus (1570)
Painting of Venetian and Ottoman fleets engaging, from the 17th Century
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Constantinople
Constantinople
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Malta
Malta
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Istanbul
Istanbul
Hagia Sophia, Instanbul
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Edirne
Edirne
Selimiye Mosque, built in the 16th Century
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Trieste
Trieste
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Zadar
Zadar
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Amyklai
Amyklai
The Death of Hyacinth, whose tomb was supposedly located at Amyklai
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Patrae
Patrae
Varasova Mountain as seen from Patras
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Troizen
Troizen
The Greek hero Thesius was supposedly born in Troizen
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Sikyon
Sikyon
Tablet showing an animal sacrifice unearthed near Sikyon, dated to 530 BC
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Nicaea
Nicaea
Medieval Byzantine Image of the Emperor Constantine and the bishops of the First Council of Nicaea
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Shipwreck of St. Paul
Shipwreck of St. Paul
St. Paul's Bay in Malta, where locals believe St. Paul was shipwrecked
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Persecution at Smyrna
Persecution at Smyrna
Polycarp is killed during a persecution of Christians (156 AD)
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Persecutions at Lyon
Persecutions at Lyon
The Provincial Governer persecutes the Christian community of Lyon (177 AD)
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The Fire of Rome
The Fire of Rome
Emperor Nero blames Christians in Rome for the Great fire of 64 AD and has them killed.
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Martyrdom of Perpetua & Felicitas
Martyrdom of Perpetua & Felicitas
During a wave of Persecutions in North Africa, Perpetua and Felicitas are matryred at Carthage (202 AD)
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Martyrdom of St Januarius (305 AD)
Martyrdom of St Januarius (305 AD)
St Januarius is killed in Campania during the Diocletian Persecution
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Martyrdom of St. George (305 AD)
Martyrdom of St. George (305 AD)
St. George is killed among many others at Nicomedia during the Diocletian Persecution
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Martyrdom of St. Agnes (304 AD)
Martyrdom of St. Agnes (304 AD)
St. Agnes is killed in Rome during the Diocletian Persecution
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Martyrdom at Sebeste (Sivas) in 320 AD
Martyrdom at Sebeste (Sivas) in 320 AD
40 Christian soldiers are killed at Sebeste (Sivas) in 320 AD
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Destruction of the Oracle of Apollo, Didyma (324 AD)
Destruction of the Oracle of Apollo, Didyma (324 AD)
In retaliation for their support of Christian persecution, Constantine orders the destruction of the Oracle of Apollo and murder of the priests
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Destruction of the Pagan Temples of Mt. Athos
Destruction of the Pagan Temples of Mt. Athos
388 AD
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Destruction of the Temple of Aphrodite in Aphaca
Destruction of the Temple of Aphrodite in Aphaca
326 AD
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Destruction of the Temple of Aphrodite in Baalbeck (325 AD)
Destruction of the Temple of Aphrodite in Baalbeck (325 AD)
Artist's reconstruction of the temple complex of Baalbeck
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The Burning of the Library of Antioch (364 AD)
The Burning of the Library of Antioch (364 AD)
In 364 AD, the Emperor Jovian orders the burning of the Library of Antioch
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Closure of the Temple of Ascelpius, Epidaurus
Closure of the Temple of Ascelpius, Epidaurus
Temple of the God Asclepius sacked by the Christians in 388 AD, then finally destroyed by Alaric and the Goths in 395 AD
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Destruction of the Pagan Temples in Milan (380 AD)
Destruction of the Pagan Temples in Milan (380 AD)
The Pagan temples of Milan are destroyed on orders of the Bishop Ambrosius
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Destruction of the Temple of Demeter, Eleusis
Destruction of the Temple of Demeter, Eleusis
The Christian priests lead a mob against the Temple of Goddess Demeter (380 AD)
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Cabeireion of Imbros destroyed (388 AD)
Cabeireion of Imbros destroyed (388 AD)
Cabeireion destroyed
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Destruction of the Temple of Zeus, Apamea
Destruction of the Temple of Zeus, Apamea
388 AD
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Destruction of the Pagan Temples of Palmyra
Destruction of the Pagan Temples of Palmyra
388 AD
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Destruction of the Pagan Temples of Alexandria
Destruction of the Pagan Temples of Alexandria
Theophilus, Patriarch of Alexandria destroys the Pagan temples of Alexandria and the Serapeum library
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Destruction of the Pagan Temples of Samothrace
Destruction of the Pagan Temples of Samothrace
392 AD
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Sack of Olympia (393 AD)
Sack of Olympia (393 AD)
The Olympic Games are outlawed as part of the Hellenic "idolatry" and Christians sack the Temples of Olympia.
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Destruction of the Temple of Juno Caelestis, Carthage
Destruction of the Temple of Juno Caelestis, Carthage
In 399 AD, the Temple is siezed by a Christian mob and converted into a church, but a few years later it is destroyed along with all other Pagan relics in Carthage
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Destruction of the Temple of Artemis, Ephesus (406 AD)
Destruction of the Temple of Artemis, Ephesus (406 AD)
Reconstruction of the Temple of Artemis, Ephesus
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Destruction of the Pagan Temples of Salamis (406 AD)
Destruction of the Pagan Temples of Salamis (406 AD)
Destruction of Pagan temples by Saints Epiphanius and Eutychius
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Sack of the Acropolis (429 AD)
Sack of the Acropolis (429 AD)
The Temple to Athena at the Acropolis is sacked under the orders of Theodosius
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Sack of the Temple of Aphrodite in Aphrodisias
Sack of the Temple of Aphrodite in Aphrodisias
The temple of Aphrodite is sacked in 450 AD, a few years later the structure was converted into a church
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Vestal Virgins Temple destroyed in Rome (394 AD)
Vestal Virgins Temple destroyed in Rome (394 AD)
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Temple of Asclepius destroyed in Aegae, Cilicia
Temple of Asclepius destroyed in Aegae, Cilicia
The Emperor Constantine's soldiers demolish the Temple of Asclepius in 325 AD
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Destruction of the Pagan temples of Pergamon (325 AD)
Destruction of the Pagan temples of Pergamon (325 AD)
Reconstruction of the Ancient city of Pergamum
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Battle of Paraitacene
Battle of Paraitacene
Antigonus (pictured in the coin above) defeats the forces of Eumenes and conquers Persia
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Battle of Gaza
Battle of Gaza
Ptolemy I (pictured) defeats the forces of Antigonus
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Battle of Ipsus
Battle of Ipsus
Seleucus arrives with his Indian elpehants to save his allies and defeat Antigonus, who is killed on the battlefield
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Battle of Corupedium
Battle of Corupedium
Seleucus (pictured) defeats Lysimachus
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The Elephant Battle
The Elephant Battle
Antiochus I, son of Seleucus gains the nickname 'Soter' (savior) for driving back an invasion of Gauls with elephants
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Meda'in Saleh
Meda
The ruins of Meda'in Saleh were known to Mohammed and refered to in the Koran (Sura 7 & 11)
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Dedan
Dedan
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Khaybar
Khaybar
The ruins of one of the forts of Khaybar, where the Jews made their last stand against Mohammed
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Dumat Al-Jandal
Dumat Al-Jandal
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Mecca
Mecca
14th Century AD depiction of Mohammed lifting the black stone onto a carpet so that it can be placed inside the Kaaba, Mecca
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Nakhla
Nakhla
Nakhla was the center for the worship of the Goddess Al-Uzza, this image is modern, all ancient images were destroyed.
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Taif
Taif
Taif was the center for the worship of the Goddess Allat, this image is modern, all ancient images were destroyed.
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Qudayd
Qudayd
Qudayd was the center for the worship of the Goddess Manat, this image is modern, all ancient images were destroyed.
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Jeddah
Jeddah
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Tabuk
Tabuk
14th century AD depiction of a Ghassanid Arab King
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Expulsion of the Banu Qaynuqa
Expulsion of the Banu Qaynuqa
14th Century Persian depiction of Muhammad leading the Muslims against the Banu Qaynuqa, who he expelled from Medina in 624 AD
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Battle of Uhud (625 AD)
Battle of Uhud (625 AD)
Mount Uhud, where the Muslims suffered their first defeat
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Medina
Medina
16th Century depiction of Medina
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The Massacre of the Banu Qurayza
The Massacre of the Banu Qurayza
Mohammed and his companions slaughter all the males of the Banu Qurayza tribe
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Battle of the Trench (627 AD)
Battle of the Trench (627 AD)
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Najran
Najran
Ancient engraving of a horse near Najran
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Destruction of the 360 Pagan idols at the Kaaba (630 AD)
Destruction of the 360 Pagan idols at the Kaaba (630 AD)
The Muslims destroy the Pagan Idols of the Kaaba, from a 10th Century Persian Painting
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Demolition of the Al-Uzza Sanctuary (630 AD)
Demolition of the Al-Uzza Sanctuary (630 AD)
Mohammed sends Khalid to destroy the sanctuary of the Goddess Al-Uzza and kill the custodians
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Demolition of the Manat Sanctuary (630 AD)
Demolition of the Manat Sanctuary (630 AD)
Mohammed sent Abu Sufyan to destroy the temple of the Goddess Manat
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Destruction of the temple of Allat (631 AD)
Destruction of the temple of Allat (631 AD)
Mohammed sent Abu Sufyan to destroy the temple of the Goddess Allat
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The Hijra (622 AD)
The Hijra (622 AD)
Mohammed fled to Medina in 622 AD
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Pyramids of Giza
Pyramids of Giza
The Great Pyramid of Cheops is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids at Giza.
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Meroe
Meroe
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Saqqara
Saqqara
The Stepp Pyramid of Pharoah Djoser, 27th century BC
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Meidum
Meidum
The Meidum Pyramid
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Dahshur
Dahshur
The Bent Pyramid at Dahshur
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Abydos
Abydos
Horus with a Pharoah at the temple of Osiris in Abydos
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Abu Simbel
Abu Simbel
The entrance to the temple of Abu Simbel, from an 1838 illustration by David Roberts
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Karnak
Karnak
Precinct of Amun-Re, as it appeared in 1838
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Akhetaten
Akhetaten
Pharoah Akhenaton with Nefertiti and their children
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Djanet
Djanet
Gold funerary mask of Psusennes I, found at Djanet
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Nekhen
Nekhen
The Narmer Palette, found at Nekhen, which illustrates the first unification of Egypt under Pharaoh Narmer (3100 BC)
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Napata
Napata
Artist reconstruction of the Temple of Amun at Napata
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Nuri Pyramids
Nuri Pyramids
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Kerma
Kerma
Statues of the Nubian Pharaohs of the 25th Dynasty found at Kerma
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Avaris
Avaris
Egyptian depiction of the Hyksos peoples, who conquered Egypt in the Second Intermediate Period and made Avaris their capital.
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Semna
Semna
Semna was a fortified town established in the reign of Senusret I (1965-1920 BCE) on the west bank of the Nile
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Herakleopolis
Herakleopolis
Herakleopolis was the center for the worship of the Egyptian Ram-God Heryshaf (pictured above).
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Sais
Sais
Bust of Pharaoh Amasis II of the 26th Dynasty who ruled Egypt from Sais.
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Battle of Kadesh
Battle of Kadesh
Ramesses II of Egypt faces Muwatalli II of the Hittites, stalemate between the two Empires
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Behistun
Behistun
The face of Persian King Darius I from the Behistun Inscription
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Naqsh-e Rustam
Naqsh-e Rustam
Achaemenid tomb at Naqsh-e Rustam
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Bactria
Bactria
Bracelet from the Oxus Treasure
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Samarkand
Samarkand
Depiction of Bactrians from the Persepolis Relief
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Battle of Opis
Battle of Opis
Persian victory over Neo-Babylonians
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Cyrus is defeated by the Massagetae
Cyrus is defeated by the Massagetae
Queen Tomyris of the Massagetae with the head of Cyrus the Great
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The army of Cambyses II disappears into the desert
The army of Cambyses II disappears into the desert
The lost army of Cambyses II according to a XIX century engraving
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Cambyses conquers Egypt
Cambyses conquers Egypt
Cambyses II of Persia capturing pharaoh Psamtik III. Image on Persian seal, VI century BC.
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Ptolemais
Ptolemais
Ptolemais was most probably founded in 7th or 6th century BC by settlers from Barka. It was destroyed by the Arabs in the 7th Century AD.
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Gerasa
Gerasa
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Philadelphia
Philadelphia
The ancient Greek temple of Hercules in what was once Philadelphia, now Amman, the modern capital of Jordan.
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Apamea
Apamea
Apamea on the Orontes, built by Seleucus I Nicator and named after his Bactrian wife Apama.
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Laodicea
Laodicea
Laodicea was founded by the Macedonian King Seleucus I Nicator and named after his mother Laodice, it is now known as Latakia.
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Xanthos
Xanthos
3 girls approach a seated woman holding a pomegranite, relief from xanthos circa 480 BC
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Philae
Philae
The temple of Isis at Philae, the last pagan temple in the Mediterranean World, it was finally closed down by Justinian the Great in the 6th Century AD.
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Eglon
Eglon
Eglon was a Canaanite city destroyed by the Israelites under Joshua, the whole city was massacred
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Heshbon
Heshbon
Heshbon was a Canaanite city destroyed by the Isrealites under Moses.
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Bashan
Bashan
Bashan was a Canannite nation totally destroyed by Moses, the entire population was slaughtered.
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Battle of Jericho
Battle of Jericho
The Israelites, led by Joshua, sack Jericho and slaughter all of the men, women and children
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Libnah
Libnah
Tel Burna (pictured) may be the location of the Canaanite city of Libnah, where the Israelites slaughtered the entire population (Joshua 10:29-30)
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Jebus
Jebus
Jebus was the ancient name of Jerusalem before it was conquered by the Israelites
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Battle of the Waters of Merom
Battle of the Waters of Merom
The Israelites defeat the Northern Canaanites and destroy all their cities
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The Massacre of the Midianites
The Massacre of the Midianites
The Israelites slaughter all the Midianite men, but keep the virgin girls for themselves.
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