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The Minoan World (1900-1425 BC)

Castleden, R. (1993). Minoan Life in Bronze Age Crete. Routledge, London.

Gesell, G.C. (1983), "The Place of the Goddess in Minoan Society", in Krzyszkowska, O. & L. Nixon, L., Minoan Society, Bristol.

Goodison, L., & Morris, C. (1998), "Beyond the Great Mother: The Sacred World of the Minoans," in Goodison, L., and Morris, C., eds., Ancient Goddesses: The Myths and the Evidence, London: British Museum Press, pp. 113–132.

Hood, Sinclair, 1971, The Minoans: Crete in the Bronze Age. London.

Marinatos, N., (1993). Minoan Religion: Ritual, Image, and Symbol. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press.

Marinatos, S., (1960), Crete and Mycenae, Harry N. Abrams

Pellegrino, C. (1991) Unearthing Atlantis, Avon Books, New York

Renfrew, A.C., 1972, The Emergence of Civilisation: The Cyclades and the Aegean in The Third Millennium BC, Methuen Publishing Ltd, London.

Mycenaean Greece (1550-1060 BC)

Ballard, R.D. (2008) Mystery of the Ancient Seafarers; Early Maritime Civilizations. National Geographic, Washington D.C.

Castleden, R. (2005) The Mycenaeans. Routledge, London.

Chadwick, J. (1976). The Mycenaean World. Cambridge UP, Cambridge

Marinatos, S., (1960), Crete and Mycenae, Harry N. Abrams

The Bronze Age Collapse (1250-1150 BC)

Drews, R.(1993) The End of the Bronze Age, Princeton University Press, New Jersey

Liverani, M. (1987)'The Collapse of the Near Eastern Regional System at the end of the Bronze Age: the case of Syria' in Rowlands, M. et el. Centre and Periphery in the Ancient World, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Mathers, C. & Stoddart, S. (1994) Development and Decline in the Mediterranean Bronze Age. J.R. Collins, Cambridge.

Sandars, N.K. (1987). The Sea Peoples: Warriors of the ancient Mediterranean, Revised Edition. London: Thames and Hudson.

Woudhuizen, F.C. (2006) The Ethnicity of the Sea Peoples, A Doctoral Thesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam, http://repub.eur.nl/resource/publication:7686/index.html

Stern, E. & Mazar, A. (eds.) (1998) Mediterranean Peoples in Transition; 13th to Early 10th Century BCE. Isreal Exploration Society, Jerusalem.

Ancient Israel and Phoenicia

Armstrong, K. (1993) A History of God, Ballatine Books.

Bonfante, G. (1946) Who were the Philistines?, American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 50, , pp. 251-262.

Denver, G. (2003) Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come From? Wm. B. Eerdman's Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, Michigan

The English Standard Version Bible: Containing the Old and New Testaments with Apocrypha. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2009

Lemche, N.P. (1998) The Israelites in History and Tradition. Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, London

Moscati, S. (2001) The Phoenicians. I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd., London & New York

Smith, M.S. The Origins of Biblical Monotheism: Israel's Polytheistic Background and the Ugaritic Texts (Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 2001)

Ethnic Groups of Archaic Greece

Blegen, C. (1967), "The Mycenaean Age: The Trojan War, the Dorian Invasion and Other Problems", Lectures in Memory of Louise Taft Semple: First Series, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. pp. 1-41

Drews, R. (1988). The Coming of the Greeks: Indo-European Conquests in the Aegean and the Near East. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Hall, J.M. (2000). Ethnic Identity in Greek Antiquity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Hall, J.M. (2006), "Dorians: Ancient Ethnic Group", in Wilson, Nigel, Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece, Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, New York. pp. 240-242

Herodotus (2003) The Histories. The Penguin Group, London

The Assyrians

Aubet, M.E. (1994) The Phoenicians and the West: Politics, Colonies and Trade. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Bersani, L. & Ulyssse, D. (1985) The Forms of Violence: Narrative in Assyrian Art and Modern Culture, Schocken Books

Bertman, S. (2005). Handbook to Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. Oxford University Press, New York

Healy, M. (1991) The Ancient Assyrians. Osprey, London.

Frankenstein, S. (1979) 'The Phoenicians in the far west: a function of neo-Assyrian imperialism', in Larson, M.G. (ed.) Power and Propoganda: A Symposium on Ancient Empires. Academisk Forlag, Copenhagen.

Iron Age Cyprus

Best, J. & Woudhuizen, F. (1988). Ancient Scripts from Crete and Cyprus. E.J. Brill, Leiden.

Burkert, W. (1992) The Orientalizing Revolution: Near Eastern Influence on Greek Culture in the Early Archaic Age, Harvard University Press, Harvard.

Masson, E. (1971). Studies in Cypro-Minoan Scripts. Part 1. Astrom Editions, Göteborg.

Tatton-Brown, V.A. (1997) Ancient Cyprus. British Museum Press.

Yon, M. (1997) Kition in the Tenth to Fourth Centuries BC, Bulletin of the American School of Oriental Research 308: 9-18.

Ancient Greek Religious Sanctuaries

Boardman, J., Griffin, J., & Murray, O. (2002) The Oxford History of Greece & the Hellenistic World. Oxford University Press, Oxford

Burkert, W. (1991) Greek Religion: Archaic and Classical (Ancient World). Wiley-Blackwell, Malden, MA.

Farnell, L.R. (2005) The Cults of the Greek States: Volume 1. Adamant Media Corporation

Hammond, N.G.L. (1986) A History of Greece to 322 B.C. Oxford University Press, New York

Nilsson, M.P. (2009) Greek Popular Religion. BiblioLife

Wilson, N. (2005). Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece. Abingdon, England: Routledge

The Greco-Persian Wars

Boardman, J., Griffin, J., & Murray, O. (2001) The Oxford Illustrated History of Greece and the Hellenistic World. Oxford University Press, New York

Fehling, D. (1989). Herodotus and His "Sources": Citation, Invention, and Narrative Art. Francis Cairns.

Green, P. (1996). The Greco-Persian Wars. University of California Press.

Lazenby, J.F. (1993). The Defence of Greece 490-479 BC. Aris & Phillips Ltd.

The Peloponnesian War

Barraclough, G. (1988) The Times Concise Atlas of World History. Hammond Inc., Maplewood, N.J.

Kagan, D. (1981) The Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition. Cornell University Press, New York.

Sinclair, R. K. (1988) Democracy and Participation in Athens. Cambridge University Press.

Thucydides (2009) The History Of The Peloponnesian War. Seven Treasures Publishing, United States.

Greek and Phoenician Colonies in Sicily

Aubet, M.E. (1994) The Phoenicians and the West: Politics, Colonies and Trade. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Cherchiai, L. Jannelli, L. & Longo, F. (2004) The Greek Cities of Magna Graecia and Sicily. Getty Trust Publications, J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles.

Woodhead, A.G. (1968) The Greeks in the West. Praeger, New York.

Greek and Phoenician Colonies in Iberia

Centro Cultural El Monte (2000) Argentonio: Rey de Tartessos. Fundacion El Monte, Sevilla.

Cunliffe, B. & Keay, S. (1995) Social Complexity and the Development of Towns in Iberia, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

De Motes, J.M. (1970) Tartessos; La Cuidad sin Historia. Ediciones Destino, Barcelona.

Diaz-Andreu, M. & Keay, S. (1997) The Archaeology of Iberia; The Dynamics of Change. Routledge, London.

Harrison, R.J. (1988) Spain and the Dawn of History. Thames & Hudson Ltd., London.

Ruiz, A. & Molinos, M. (1993) The Archaeology of the Iberians. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Alexander the Great

Bose, P. (2003). Alexander the Great's Art of Strategy: Lessons from the Great Empire Builder. Penguin Group, New York.

Gergel, T. (ed.) (2004). Alexander the Great: The Brief Life and Towering Exploits of History's Greatest Conqueror - As Told By His Original Biographers. Penguin Books, New York

Green, Peter (2007). Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic Age. Orion Books, London.

Plutarch (2001) Plutarch's Lives, Volume 2 . Random House Inc., Toronto

Tarn, W.W., Holt, F.L., & Miller, M.C.J. (1997) The Greeks in Bactria and India. Ares Publishers, Chicago Ridge, IL.

Wood, M. (Narrator / Actor), & Wallace, D. (Producer) (1998) In the Footsteps of Alexander the Great. [Television Documentary] PBS Paramount, United States

The Diadochi and the Hellenistic Age

Chamoux, F. (2003) Hellenistic Civilization. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford

Diadorus Siculus (1963) Diodorus Siculus: Library of History, Volume VIII, Books 16.66-17. Loeb Classical Library, St. Edmundsbury Press, Ltd., Bury St. Edmunds, U.K.

Shipley, G. (2000) The Greek World After Alexander 323-30 BC. Routledge, London

Ptolemaic Egypt

Chauveau, M. (2000) Egypt in the Age of Cleopatra: History and Society under the Ptolemies. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, N.Y.

Hölbl, G. (2001) A History of the Ptolemaic Empire. Routledge Ltd., London

The Roman Conquest of Italy

Livy, T. (1982) Rome and Italy: Books VI-X of the History of Rome from its Foundation. Penguin Books, London

Plutarch (2001) Plutarch's Lives Volume 1 (Modern Library Classics). Random House Inc., Toronto

The First Punic War

Harden, D.(1962) The Phoenicians. Thames & Hudson, London

Polybius (1980) The Rise of the Roman Empire. Penguin Books, London

Warmington, B.H. (1993) Carthage. Barnes & Noble, Inc., New York.

Wise, T. (1982) Armies of the Carthaginian Wars. Osprey Publishing, London.

The Second Punic War

Bagnall, N. (1990) The Punic Wars: Rome, Carthage, and the Struggle for the Mediterranean. St. Martin's Press, N.Y.

Cottrell, L. (1992). Hannibal: Enemy Of Rome. Da Capo Press, N.Y.

Livy, T. (1965) The War with Hannibal: The History of Rome from Its Foundation, Books XXI-XXX. Penguin Books, London.

Lancel, S. (1997) Carthage A History. Blackwell Publishers, Oxford.

Lancel, S. (1999) Hannibal. Blackwell Publishers, Oxford.

The Roman Conquest of the Mediterranean

Bringham, K. (2007) A History of the Roman Republic. Polity Press, Cambridge, UK.

Livy, T. (1976) Rome and the Mediterranean: Books XXXI-XLV of the History of Rome from its Foundation. Penguin Books, London.

Polybius (1980) The Rise of the Roman Empire. Penguin Books, London.

The Demise of the Roman Republic

Eck, W. (2003). The Age of Augustus. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, Oxford.

Holland, T. (2005) Rubicon: The Last Years of the Roman Republic. Anchor Books, N.Y.

Plutarch (2006) The Fall of the Roman Republic: Six Lives. Penguin Books, London.

Shotter, D. (2005) The Fall of the Roman Republic. Routledge, New York

Roman Hispania

Lowe, B. (2009) Roman Iberia: Economy, Society and Culture. Duckworth Publishers, London.

Richards, J.S. (1998) The Romans in Spain. Blackwell Publishers Ltd., Malden, MA.

Vincent, M. & Stradling, R.A. (1994) Cultural Atlas of Spain & Portugal. Andromeda Oxford Limited, N.Y.

Roman Provence

Aue, M. et. el. (1997) Roman Provence. MSM, Vic-en-Bigorre Cedex, France.

Bastié, A. (2001) Histoire de la Provence. Editions Ouest-France.

Bromwich, J. (1996) The Roman Remains of Southern France: A Guide Book. Routledge, London.

Roman Africa

Barnes, T.D. (1982) The New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Boardman, J. et el. (2001) The Oxford History of the Roman World. Oxford University Press, New York.

MacKendrick, P.L. (2000) The North African Stones Speak. University of North Carolina Press, North Carolina.

Mason, E. (1960). Tiberius. Ballantine Books, New York.

Raven, S. (1993) Rome in Africa. Routledge, London.

The Rise of Christianity

Adherents.com (2005-08-28). "Major Religions of the World Ranked by Number of Adherents". adherents.com. http://www.adherents.com/Religions_By_Adherents.html. Retrieved 2009-9-5.

Brown, P. (2003) The Rise of Western Christendom: Triumph and Diversity, A.D. 200-1000. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA.

Elliott, T. G. (1996) The Christianity of Constantine the Great. University of Scranton Press, Scranton, PA.

Elsner, J. (1998) Imperial Rome and Christian Triumph. Oxford University Press, New York.

Frend, W.H.C. (2008) Martyrdom and Persecution in the Early Church, James Clarke Lutterworth, Cambridge, U.K.

McMullan, R. (1984) Christianizing the Roman Empire A.D. 100-400, Yale University Press, United States

Stark, R. (1997) The Rise of Christianity. Harper Collins, Princeton, N.J.

The Fall of the Roman Empire

Gibbon, E. (1996) The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Vol. 1. Penguin Classics, London.

Gibbon, E. (1996b) The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Vol. 2. Penguin Classics, London.

Heather, P. (1996) The Goths. Blackwell Publishers, Oxford.

Thompson, E.A. (1948) A History of Attila and the Huns. Oxford University Press, London.

Williams, S. & Friell, G. (1994) Theodosius: The Empire at Bay. Yale University Press, Yale.

Muhammad's Conquest of Arabia

Crone, P.(2004) Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam. Gorgias, Piscataway, New Jersey.

Haykal, M.H. (1933) The Life of Muhammad, translated by Isma'il Razi A. al-Faruqi. The Supreme Council of Islamic Affairs, Cairo, Egypt & the University of Chicago.
Full text version available online here

Hisham Ibn Al-Kalbi - The Book of Idols. Translated by Nabih Amin Faris. Princeton University Press
Full text version available online here

Hitti, P. (1951) History of the Arabs from the Earliest time to the Present. Macmillan, New York.

Husayn, M.J. - Biography Of Imam `Ali Ibn Abi-Talib, Translation of Sirat Amir Al-Mu'minin, Translated By: Sayyid Tahir Bilgrami, Ansariyan Publications, Qum, Islamic Republic of Iran
Full text version available online here

Ibn Ishaq (translated by Guillaume, A. 1955) The Life of Muhammad. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Ibn Sa’d (translated by Moinul Haq, S. 1986) Kitab Al-tabaqat Al-kabir Vol. 2, Kitab Bhaven, New Delhi

Shoufani, E.S. (1973) Al-Riddah and the Muslim conquest of Arabia. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

Al-Tabari - The History of Al-Tabari translated by Michael Fishbein. Suny Series in Near Eastern Studies, State University of New York Press.

Watt, W.M.(1953) Muhammad at Mecca. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Watt, W.M.(1981) Muhammad at Medina. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

The Rise of Islam

Butler, A.J. (2009) The Arab Conquest of Egypt and the Last Thirty Years of the Roman Dominion. General Books LLC

Crone, P.(2004) Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam. Gorgias, Piscataway, New Jersey.

Gibbon, E. (1996) The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Vol. 3. Penguin Classics, London.

Kaegi, W.E. (1995) Byzantium and the Early Islamic Conquests. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Kennedy, H. (2007) The Great Arab Conquests: How the Spread of Islam Changed the World We Live In. De Capo Press, Philadelphia, PA.

Khaldoun, I. (1925) Histoire des Berberes et des Dynasties Musulmanes de l'Afrique Septentrionale. Paul Geuthner, Paris.

Lewis, B. (1993) The Arabs in History. Oxford University Press, Oxford

Norwich, J.J. (1998) A Short History of Byzantium. Penguin Books, New York.

Rassia, V. (1994) Demolish Them. Diipetes Editions, Athens.

Shoufani, E.S. (1973) Al-Riddah and the Muslim conquest of Arabia. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

Islamic Spain and the Reconquista

Barrucand, M. & Bednorz, A. (1992) Moorish Architecture in Andalusia. Benedikt Taschen Verlag GmbH, Cologne.

Barton, S. & Fletcher, R. (2000) The world of El Cid, Chronicles of the Spanish reconquest. Manchester University Press, Manchester.

Cavero, I.G. (2007) Una Revisión de la Figura de Ibn Mardanish. Su Alianza con el reino de Castilla y la Oposición a los Almohades. Miscelánea Medieval Murciana, XXXI; pp. 95-110.

Glick, T.F. (1979) Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages: Comparative Perspectives on Social and Cultural Formation. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Houghton Mifflin Social Studies (2002) Across the Centuries. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston, MA.

Kennedy, H. (1996) Muslim Spain and Portugal: A Political History of al-Andalus. Longman, Harlow, Essex.

Linehan, P. (2008) Spain, 1157-1300; A Partible Inheritance. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Oxford.

Lowney, C. (2006) A Vanished World: Muslims, Christians, and Jews in Medieval Spain. Oxford University Press, U.S.A.

Menocal, M.R. (2003) The Ornament of the World: How Muslims, Jews and Christians Created a Culture of Tolerance in Medieval Spain. Back Bay Books, U.S.A.

O'Callaghan, J. (1983) A History of Medieval Spain. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.

Otero, X.C. (1997) Santiago de Compostela. Editorial Everest.

Reilly, B.F. (1992) The Contest of Christian and Muslim Spain, 1031-1157. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Oxford.

Vincent, M. & Stradling, R.A. (1994) Cultural Atlas of Spain & Portugal. Andromeda Oxford Limited, N.Y.

Wahid Al Marrekoshi, A.L. (2009) The History of the Almohades. BiblioLife.

Saracens Raids in the Mediterranean and the Christian Recovery

Arkoun, M. (2006) Histoire de l'Islam et des Musulmans en France du Moyen-Age à Nos Jours. Albin Michel, Paris.

Gordon, M. (1990) Slavery in the Arab World. New Amsterdam Books, Chicago, IL.

Kreutz, B.M. (1996) Before the Normans: Southern Italy in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.

Mathew, D. (1992) The Norman Kingdom of Sicily. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.

Norwich, J.J. (1989) Byzantium: The Apogee. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

O'Shea, S. (2006) Sea of Faith: Christianity and Islam in the Medieval Mediterranean World. Douglas & McIntyre, Vancouver, Canada.

Ostrogorsky, G. (1957) History of the Byzantine State. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, N.J.

The Crusades in the Holy Land

Amitai-Preiss, R. (1995). Mongols and Mamluks: the Mamluk-Ilkhanid War, 1260-1281. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.

Balard, M. (2006) Les Latins en Orient (XIe-XVe siècle). Presses Universitaires de France, Paris.

Grousset, R. (1988) The Empire of the Steppes. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick.

Harris, J. (2003) Byzantium and the Crusades. Hambledon, London.

Lyons, M.C. & Jackson, D.E.P. (1982) Saladin: the Politics of the Holy War. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.

Nicolle, David (2001) The Crusades: Essential Histories. Osprey Publishing, London.

Reston, J. (2001) Warriors of God: Richard the Lionheart and Saladin in the Third Crusade. Anchor Books, New York.

Richard, Jean (1999) The Crusades, 1071-1291. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.

Stark, R. (2009) God's Battalions: The Case for the Crusades. HarperOne, N.Y.

The Mediterranean Empire of the Crown of Aragon

Braudel, F. (1995) The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Phillip II, Volume I. University of California Press, Los Angeles

Chaytor, H. J. (1933) A History of Aragon and Catalonia. Methuen, London.

Setton, K.M. (1975) Catalan Domination of Athens 1311-1380. Variorum, London.

Vincent, M. & Stradling, R.A. (1994) Cultural Atlas of Spain & Portugal. Andromeda Oxford Limited, N.Y.

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